The station of Zeus
Construction time: About 457 BC
Construction site: Olympia, Greece
About 450 B.C., a huge statue, the statue of Zeus, was completed in Olympia, Greece, the host of the first Olympic Games (776 B.C.).
Zeus is the God of Greek gods. The statue of Zeus built for worship was the largest indoor statue in the world at that time. The temple of Zeus where the statue of Zeus was located was the birthplace of the Olympic Games. Some Olympic events were held here. The site is located in the ancient city of Olympia on the West Bank of Greece.
The temple of Zeus was built in 470 BC and completed in 456 BC. It was designed by the architect libon, and the statue of Zeus was in the charge of the sculptor Pheidias. The temple is made of limestone with plaster on the surface, and the top of the temple is made of marble. The temple is supported by Corinthian pillars with a height of 17 meters. The area of the temple is 41.1 meters by 107.75 meters. The temple of Zeus is a Doric style building. The entire statue and his Robe are made of gold. He wears an olive woven ring, The right hand holds the statue of the goddess of victory made of ivory and gold. The left hand holds a scepter inlaid with glittering metal, on which an eagle stays. The throne he sits on is decorated with Sphinx, goddess of victory and mythical figures. The base of the throne is 6.5 meters (20 feet) wide and 1.0 meters (3 feet) high. The statue is about 13 meters (40 feet) high, which is equivalent to a four story modern building, Set Zeus on the throne with his head almost against the top of the temple. The temple at Olympia was destroyed by fire in A.D. 5.
Later, the Greeks decided to move it to Constantinople (now Istanbul) for security reasons. But there was no way to preserve the great statue. A fire in 462 completely destroyed the statue. In Olympia, only the ruins were left.
The mausoleum at halicanassus
Construction time: About 353 BC
Construction site: present southwest Turkey
Not everyone knows that the word Mausoleum (Memorial Hall), which now refers to a large-scale memorial building for storing the remains of famous figures, comes from the palace built for storing the remains of mauso1us in the ancient Calian city of harikanasus (ancient Greek city, located in bodromo in the southwest of Turkey). Mosolas was the king of Caria in southwest Anatolia. He died in 353 BC. The construction of this grand mausoleum had begun before his death.
The mausoleum of mosolas is located in harrykanasus, in the southwest of Turkey. The bottom building is rectangular, with an area of 40 meters by 30 meters and a height of 45 meters. The pier base wall is 20 meters high, the column is 12 meters high, the pyramid is 7 meters high, and the carriage statue at the top is 6 meters high. The building is surrounded by the pier base wall and decorated with stone statues. The statue at the top is four horses pulling an ancient two wheeled chariot. Apart from its buildings, the tomb is famous for its sculptures. The sculpture of the mausoleum of mosolas was made by four famous sculptors bryaxis, leochares, scopas, and Timotheus, each responsible for one side of the mausoleum.
In the early 15th century, when harrykanasus was occupied, the new ruler took the position of building a huge castle, so some stones from the mausoleum of mosolas were used as building materials in 1494. Today, many sculptures still survive and are stored in museums in London, England. Since the 19th century, the mausoleum of mosolas has been excavated in archaeology. These excavations provide a lot of information about the mausoleum of mosolas, which makes us have a better understanding of the shape and appearance of the mausoleum of mosolas.
This ancient architectural wonder now has only a few ruins, most of which are collected in the British Museum in London. According to the description of great Pliny, a Latin historian, the building is composed of three parts: the foundation is 19 meters high, the plane on the foundation is 39 meters long and 33 meters wide; Above is an Ionian arcade composed of 36 columns, 11 meters high; The pyramid shaped roof on the arcade is composed of regular 24 steps, which may symbolize the reign years of mosolas. Further up, the top decoration of the mausoleum is a four horse two wheeled chariot driven by King mosolas and queen Artemisia II (the queen is also the king's sister. She ruled alone for 3 years after the king died and died about 350 BC).
Fragments of splendid architecture this building, designed and completed by two architects, pittid and satiro, is built of white marble from Palos island. It is 42 meters high, equivalent to a 14 story building. The very exquisite decoration, sculpture and numerous statues inside the mausoleum add a lot of luster to this magnificent building. Historians believe that these masterpieces were created by some famous artists at that time, such as scobas, leokalis, timothyas, etc. Among the three relief decorations, the first one shows the carriage, the second is the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons, and the third is the struggle between the lapidians and the half man and half horse monsters. Today, however, we can only see fragments of the battle scenes between the Greeks and the Amazons, which are preserved in the British Museum. Even if we can not restore the sculpture and decoration according to the exact location, we can still imagine the extraordinary style of this grand memorial building from the remaining fragments.
Vandal cavalry in the 12th century, an earthquake damaged the robustness of the building, but the vandal people should be blamed for its ultimate destruction. These cavalry, led by Saint Giovanni, captured halikanasus in 1402 and built the saint there Fort Peter. In the early 16th century, in order to strengthen the fortress, the cavalry took the Mausoleum as a quarry, and the mausoleum of mosolas was gradually demolished. Although British archaeologist Charles Newton has been excavating here since 1856, but today, we still do not know whether the sarcophagus of mosolas is in the statue room or in the tomb inside the foundation under the building. In addition, according to one of the most believable assumptions, it may not only be the tomb of a king, but also the tomb built by the entire ekadomenid Dynasty. The newly found sculpture adds corroboration to this new hypothesis. These statues generally have three specifications: natural type similar to real people, hero type of about 2 meters and giant type of about 3 meters. The statues of mosolas and artemisi II (damaged) belong to the last category, and fragments of 10 other giant statues have also been identified. People can't help but ask: is this a family tomb? Finally, I entered the tomb
From 1966 to 1977, an archaeological team composed of Turkey and Denmark first excavated the underground chamber of the mausoleum and found that it was composed of a central room and two front halls. The tomb is not connected with the center of the building, but is located in the northwest corner of the foundation. The population is closed by a huge stone weighing several tons. It was also due to the investigation of this Turkish Danish archaeological team that it was confirmed that the tomb was originally built in a cemetery that was still in use until the 6th century BC.
The Colossus of Rhodes
Construction time: late 4th century BC or early 2nd century BC
Construction site: Rhodes port, Greece, Aegean Sea
Rhode Island was an important business center in BC. It was located at the junction of the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Rhode Harbor was built in 408 BC. Rhode Island has been ruled by many spheres of influence in history, including mosolas (his tomb is also one of the seven wonders) and Alexander the great. But after the death of Alexander the great, the whole island fell into a long war
The Macedonian aggressor Dmitri surrounded the port with 40000 troops (more than the population of the whole island). After a hard war, the Rhode islanders defeated the invaders. To celebrate this victory, they decided to build a statue with the bronze weapons abandoned by the enemy. The statue has been built for 12 years. It is 110 feet high, that is, about the height of the well-known statue of liberty in New York. The statue is hollow and reinforced with complex stone and iron pillars. But the great statue was destroyed by a strong earthquake only 56 years after its completion. The above picture seems to be different from the legendary statue. According to legend, the statue stood on the harbor with its two legs apart, and the ship just passed between its legs. Imagine what a spectacular and interesting scene it was. The picture below is based on this situation. Although a few of them no longer exist, they are still difficult to complete today, so they can also be called miracles.