1、 Egyptian Khufu pyramid
Construction time: About 2631 BC - 2498 BC
Construction site: near Giza near Cairo, Egypt.
The Egyptian pyramid is the mausoleum of ancient Egyptian pharaohs. It varies in size. The largest is the Khufu pyramid, which is 137.2 meters high and 230 meters long at the bottom. It shares 2.3 million stones with an average of 2.5 tons each, covering an area of 52000 square meters. It takes about one kilometer to walk around there. The pyramids of Egypt are the pyramidal tombs of kings in the ancient slave society of Egypt. One of the eight wonders of the world. It is numerous and widely distributed. The ancient city of Memphis west of the Nile River in the southwest of Cairo is the most concentrated.
Among the pyramids that have been found in Egypt, the largest and most famous is the three generations of pyramids on the Giza highland southwest of Cairo. They are the Great Pyramid (also known as Khufu pyramid), hevla pyramid and Menkaura pyramid. They form a pyramid group with many small pyramids around them, which is the peak of Egyptian pyramid architecture art.
2、 Hanging gardens of Babylon
Construction time: About 6th century BC
Location: Babylon, east of the Euphrates River, about 50 miles south of Baghdad, the capital of Iraq.
Built by King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon for his favorite queen. The queen was a Midian, and Nebuchadnezzar II built this fantastic and tall building for her so that she could often visit her hometown. The sky garden is full of exotic flowers and plants and has a complete water supply system. The ancient Greeks who saw it at that time called it a wonder of the world.
The new Babylonian King Nebuchadrezzar II (reign 605b, sky garden C - 562 BC) married the princess mitis of MIDI as Queen. The princess was beautiful and loved by the king. But as time went on, the princess began to look sad. Nebuchadnezzar somehow. The princess said, "my hometown is covered with emerald mountains and flowers. Here is the endless Babylonian plain. I can't even find a hill. How I long to see the mountains and winding paths of our hometown again!" It turned out that the princess was homesick. So Nebuchadnezzar II ordered the craftsmen to build a cascade of ladder gardens in his palace according to the scenery of the MIDI mountains, which were full of exotic flowers and plants, and opened a quiet mountain path in the garden, with gurgling water beside the path. The craftsmen also built a tower in the middle of the garden, standing in the air. The exquisite garden scenery finally won the princess' favor. As the garden is higher than the palace wall, it feels like the whole imperial garden is hanging in the air, so it is called "sky garden", also known as "Hanging Garden".
3、 Temple of Artemis
Construction time: about 550 BC
Construction site: in Ephesus, ancient Greece, about 50 kilometers south of Izmir in modern Turkey.
The goddess of hunting and moon in ancient Greek mythology, one of the main gods of Olympus, is also regarded as the protector of wild animals. Artemis is the daughter of Zeus, the chief god, and Leto, the goddess of the night. She is the twin sister of Apollo. She was born on the island of ASTRI (Tirol). It is said that Leto gave birth to Apollo with the help of Artemis nine days after his birth. Therefore, Artemis was regarded as the God of production and midwifery. In linmang and Shanye, she holds bows and arrows, accompanied by dogs, plays hunting with goddesses, and sometimes travels in a car dragged by two stags. Artemis was fierce and sometimes cruel. She scrupulously abides by all kinds of rules and customs that have existed since ancient times and asks people to strictly abide by them. Those who violate the rules often shoot with bows and arrows. Ornius, king of Calydon, was so angry that she drove the ferocious wild hunting into Calydon because she did not offer her fresh fruits as usual. She instigated the discord between the hunter leader meleagle and his people, resulting in the tragic death of the great hero meleagle. Agamemnon, the leader of the Greek allied forces who went on an expedition to Troy, shot her deer and showed off that her shooting skills were better than those of the hunting goddess. Artemis was so angry that the sea breeze suddenly stopped, and the Greek allied ships could not set sail. She insisted on offering Iphigenia, Agamemnon's daughter, as a sacrifice to compensate the holy deer, and told it through the prophet. Agamemnon was forced to comply. She changed people with deer on the altar and concealed it from the public. She brought Iphigenia to taoris and made her a female priest in her temple, specializing in asking for tribute. According to legend, Heracles killed the golden horned deer of kroneya and was forced to plead his innocence before Artemis and Apollo. Artemis was regarded as the master of beasts in Crete, and was incarnated in britomartis, the goddess of Ningfu who was responsible for ferocious hunting. Her oldest image is not only a female hunter, but also a bear.
Artemis was once regarded as the protector of plants, and later evolved into the goddess of fertility and the patron of fertility. Its holy land is mostly near springs and ponds, which symbolize the God of fertility and plants. Her boldness is like kibler, the mother of the gods of Asia Minor. In the temple of Ephesus, she was worshipped as a mammoth God. As soon as she was born, she took over Apollo for her mother. She also had the art of sudden death, or assisted the parturient through the fertility god eletia.
The early legend of Artemis is related to the moon god, who is close to Selene. In the later myth, Artemis is described as the moon god who loves the beautiful boy Endymion. Artemis was not the moon god at first. It was said that she wanted the moon like Zeus. Zeus acquiesced. Since then, she has been confused with the moon god.
The ancient Greeks used different forms of the moon to distinguish the three celestial gods. Usually Phoebe represents the new moon, Selene represents the full moon, Artemis represents the curved moon. After the mid myth, Hecate is also one of the moon gods, she represents the dark moon.
The temple building is based on marble and covered with a wooden roof The designers of the whole building are chersiphron and his son. Its biggest feature is that there are two rows inside, with at least 106 columns, each about 40 to 60 feet high. The base of the temple is about 200 by 400 feet.
4、 Olympian statue of Zeus
Construction time: About 457 BC
Construction site: Olympia, Greece.
Zeus is the God of Greek gods and the main god of Olympia. The statue of Zeus built for worship is the largest indoor statue in the world, and the Zeus temple where the statue of Zeus is located is the birthplace of the Olympic Games. Philo of Byzantium wrote about the seven wonders of the world and said, "we are proud of the other six wonders and revere the statue of Zeus."
It is said that the priest of Olympia, who was very appreciative of the masterpiece of Phidias, entrusted his descendants with the responsibility of preserving the statue of Zeus and enjoying eternal glory.
Zeus is the third generation of God King in the ancient Greek divinity spectrum. He is the Almighty God. He can see and understand anything in the world. He is the source of divine metaphor, whether on earth or on the sacred mountain. He decides the fate of gods and people.
Zeus (Greek: ΖΕ， or ΔΑ）， The God of heaven, the highest god in ancient Greek mythology, is called Jupiter (Latin: Jupiter) and Cronus in Roman mythology（ ΚΡΝΟ） And Rhea（ ΡΑ） The youngest son born. Cronus gained supreme power by overthrowing his father Uranus. He learned that he would be overthrown by his children like his father, so he swallowed his children. His wife Rhea could not bear Zeus to be swallowed, so she took a stone and pretended that Zeus would swallow it for him. When Zeus grew up, he joined his brothers and sisters in a fierce struggle against his father. After ten years of war, he defeated his father with the help of his grandmother Gaia, the goddess of the earth. Zeus and his brothers Poseidon and Hades were in charge of heaven, sea and Hades. From then on Zeus became the ruler of the universe. The Latin name of Jupiter comes from him.
Zeus and many goddesses and women gave birth to many descendants, including Apollo and Artemis, Dionysus and Heracles. Zeus did everything he could to get close to goddesses and women, and he was always furtive, so he always made Hera angry. In order not to let Hera know the location of his affair, he always tried to hinder Hera in various ways. Zeus also had a male lover, Ganymede.
5、 Mausoleum of mosolas
Construction time: About 353 BC
Construction site: Ancient Greece, now southwest Turkey.
The mausoleum of mosolas is located in harikanasus, in the southwest of Turkey (Turkey). The bottom building is rectangular, with an area of 40 meters (120 feet) by 30 meters (100 feet) and a height of 45 meters (140 feet). Among them, the pier base wall is 20 meters high, the column is 12 meters high, the pyramid is 7 meters high, and the carriage statue at the top is 6 meters high. The building is surrounded by the pier base wall and decorated with stone statues. The statue at the top is an ancient two chariot pulled by four horses.
Apart from its buildings, the tomb is famous for its sculptures. The sculpture of mosolas mausoleum was made by four famous sculptors bryaxis, leochares, scopas, and Timotheus, each responsible for one side of the mausoleum. In the early 15th century, harrykanasus was occupied. In order to build a huge castle, the new rulers used some stones from the mausoleum of mosolas as building materials in 1494. Many sculptures still survive and are stored in museums in London, England. Since the 19th century, archaeological excavations have been carried out in mosolas mausoleum. These excavations provide a lot of information about mosolas mausoleum, which makes us have a better understanding of the shape and appearance of mosolas mausoleum.
The mausoleum of Mausolus is located in the big square in the center of harrykanasus (now Turkey) in the southwest of Asia Minor. The person buried in the tomb was Mausolus, the governor of Kariya, a Persian possession, in the middle of the fourth century BC.
As for king Mausolus, people know him only because he is energetic and likes war. He once conquered Rhodes island and became the Lord of the state in a short time.
6、 Colossus of the sun god of Rhode Island
Construction time: About 282 BC
Construction site: Aegean Sea, Greece - port Rhodes.
Rhode Island was an important business center in BC. It was located at the junction of the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Rhode Harbor was built in 408 BC. Rhode Island has been ruled by many forces in history, including mosolas (his tomb is also one of the eight wonders) and Alexander the great. But after the death of Alexander the great, the whole island fell into a long war. The Macedonian aggressor Dmitri surrounded the port with 40000 troops (more than the population of the whole island). After a hard war, the Rhode islanders defeated the invaders. To celebrate this victory, they decided to build a statue with the bronze weapons abandoned by the enemy. The statue has been built for 12 years. It is 110 feet high, that is, about the height of the well-known statue of liberty in New York. The statue is hollow and reinforced with complex stone and iron pillars. But the great statue was destroyed by a strong earthquake only 56 years after its completion. According to legend, the statue stands on the harbor with two legs apart, and the ship just passes through the middle of the legs (the picture on the right is its imaginary picture), but in fact, the statue does not cross the harbor.
7、 Alexandria Lighthouse
Construction time: About 281 BC
Construction site: on the island of pharos near Alexandria in Egypt.
There are two of the world's recognized seven wonders of ancient times in Egypt. One is the Egyptian Khufu pyramid, which ranks first among the seven wonders, and the other is the Alexander lighthouse, which ranks seventh. It was built purely for the people's actual life without any religious overtones. The candle light of Alexandria lighthouse shone on the whole Alexandria at night, protecting ships on the sea. In addition, it was also the tallest building in the world at that time. The site of the Alexandria lighthouse is on Faros island near Alexandria, Egypt. In 330 BC, the mighty Macedonian king Alexander the great captured Egypt and established a city named after him at the northwest end of the Nile Delta, namely, the South Bank of the Mediterranean Sea. This is a city with a very important strategic position. In the next 100 years, it has become the capital of Egypt, one of the most prosperous cities in the world, and also the largest and most important international transshipment port in the whole Mediterranean world and the Middle East.
The lighthouse was built on FAROs Island, more than one kilometer away from the coast of Alexandria, so it was named "Faros". Since then, the word "Lighthouse" in western countries has taken the sound of "pharos". For example, "pharos" in English, "pharos" in French, "Faro" in Italian and Spanish, and so on. In fact, this tall and magnificent lighthouse is not really on the island, but built on a large reef seven meters away from the island. Stone reefs appear and disappear with the rise and fall of the sea tide, making the whole lighthouse building subject to the beating and scouring of the waves for many years, as if a skyscraper had been pulled up in the sea. On the tower, there is a huge, radiant and eternal lighthouse torch.
8、 Terra Cotta Warriors in the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty
Construction time: About 246 BC (or 247 BC)
Construction site: Lintong District, Xi'an, Shaanxi.
The Terra Cotta Warriors in the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin is the burial pit of the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin who completed the unification of China for the first time in Chinese history. It is located 1500 meters to the east of the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin. The Terra Cotta Warriors Museum of the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin, built on the original site of the funerary pit, is the largest ancient military museum in China. It shows the prosperity and prosperity of the Qin Empire. In 1961, the State Council of the people's Republic of China designated the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor as a national key site for cultural relics protection. The first comprehensive archaeological survey of Qinshihuang's Mausoleum began in 1962. Archaeologists drew the first layout plan of the mausoleum. After exploration, the mausoleum covers an area of 56.25 square kilometers, equivalent to nearly 78 national palaces, causing a sensation in the archaeological community. In 1987, the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin and the Terra Cotta Warriors pit were approved by UNESCO to be included in the world heritage list. In September, 1978, former French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac said with emotion after his visit: "there are seven wonders in the world. The discovery of the Terra Cotta Warriors of the Qin Dynasty is one of the eight wonders. You can't really visit Egypt without looking at the pyramids; you can't really visit China without looking at the terracotta warriors."  As a result, "the eighth wonder of the world" spread like wildfire. However, it should be noted that the seven wonders of the world are generally recognized, and the theory of the eighth miracle is diverse. For example, the Taj Mahal in India is generally regarded as the eighth wonder of the world by Westerners, and some people in China consider it the Great Wall.
In March, 1974, when the villagers of Xiyang village in the east of the mausoleum were digging wells for drought relief, a large-scale Terra Cotta Warriors pit in the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin was discovered between Xiahe village and Wula village three miles to the east of the mausoleum. After excavation by archaeologists, the treasures of the terracotta warriors buried more than 2000 years ago were uncovered. In 1975, the state decided to establish a museum on the original site of the terracotta pit. On October 1st, 1979, the Museum of the Terra Cotta Warriors of the first emperor of Qin began to exhibit to domestic and foreign visitors. At around 1:00 p.m. on June 13, 2009, pit No. 1 of the Terra Cotta Warriors in the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty was excavated again. Later, the colorful Terra Cotta Warriors were unearthed in the northern middle of pit No. 1.